Friday, March 20, 2020

Rhinotillexis on the Decline

Rhinotillexis on the Decline Rhinotillexis on the Decline Rhinotillexis on the Decline By Maeve Maddox You may be pleased to hear that rhinotillexis is on the downturn, at least in public places. This lovely term means picking ones nose with ones fingers. In an article by Jim Shahin in the February 15, 2008 issue of American Way, I learned that a Harvard study reveals that rhinotillexis is down 70% from the year before. The decline is attributed to the fact that cameras are everywhere and people are becoming more cautious about the activity for fear of showing up on YouTube and grossing out their friends. The element rhino occurs in several English words. The animal (rhinoceros) gets its name from the combination rhino nose and keras horn. People hardly ever use the entire word anymore when speaking of the animal. Certainly calling it a rhino makes forming its plural much easier. A scholarly plural of rhinoceros is rhinocerotes. Ive never heard anyone say that. A more familiar plural is rhinoceroses, but thats hard to say and it sounds comical. A television ad selling a cold product shows a rhinoceros and tells viewers that the source of the common cold is the rhinovirus. Rhino occurs in other medical terms. People dissatisfied with the noses they were born with can opt for rhinoplasty, cosmetic surgery that alters the shape of the nose. Rhinoscopy is a technique for examining the nose and throat. If you are writing in a humorous vein and wish to describe someone who has a big nose, you could use the adjective rhinocerical. Something I didnt know before researching rhino is that it has been used as a slang word for money since 1688. Could be that this use of the word has something to do with the origin of the expression paying through the nose. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:How Many Tenses in English?A While vs Awhileâ€Å"Least,† â€Å"Less,† â€Å"More,† and â€Å"Most†

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Synthesis Writing Steps

Synthesis Writing Steps Synthesis Writing Steps Synthesis Writing Steps Useful tips writtenby custom essay writing company: Thoroughly read each of your sources and look up anything that you dont understand. Notate or write out the main ideas in each source: Review the main ideas for each source and start to determine how they relate to each other. The following questions can help you make this determination: Do the ideas in the sources support each other or contradict each other? Do the ideas in the sources form a cause-and-effect relationship? Do the ideas in one source explain or exemplify the ideas in another source? Do the ideas in one source pick up where the ideas in another source end? Do the sources examine the same topic from different perspectives? Choose how you want to use the information in the sources. Thinking about the following questions can help you decide: Can I use the information to explain something? Can I use the information to prove something? Can I show how the sources contradict each other or present different perspectives? Can I explain the significance of the information? Can I use the information to support my own experience or observation You may either paraphrase (state the ideas of your sources in your own words) or quote the material. In either case, make sure you use the correct documentation style to give credit to your sources. The writer of a synthesis, then, starts with a clear thesis in the introductory paragraph and identifies the essays main idea. Then, the writer makes sure to credit the sources he or she consulted by including the writers name and essays title. The writer then undergoes a similar process when a paraphrase of a sources ideas is used. Finally, the conclusion offers a complete summary of the argument. Popular posts: Term Papers and Report Outline for a Term Paper Long Term Paper 10 Pages Biology Term Paper Student Research Paper

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Music Concern Report Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Music Concern Report - Essay Example couple of moments, the music seemed to capture cadences of Mexican art in ways that evoke the sensibilities of art as lived and experienced in the traditional forms. The disjunctive chords of the first theme artfully gave way to conjunct chords that morphed into each other in a perfect continuum. Tone, pitch, and rhythm were some of the tools expertly exploited to unite the meaning and beauty of the symphony. There is a sense in which the music achieved some unity in meaning by evoking the emotions of the super-real and somewhat celestial beauties as brought out in the Mexican art forms. Another telling aspect of the maturity of talent as brought out by the ensemble was manifest in the variations in tone and pitch throughout the course of the music. The auditory qualities seemed to mesh into the imaginative element of the audience hence creating a quality of art that was both arresting and relieving in equal measure. Although parts of the themes at the middle appeared to course in disharmony, there is a sense in which much of the performance achieved a harmonious flow that rose and fell with expertly rendition. In a way, the themes explored by the chords brought out multiple messages that seemed to fit into the multi-faceted life and troubled life of the artist. One would feel a connection deeper than the casual meanings as brought out in the fragmented beginnings of the themes. The rising and falling of notes was representative of the different phases that marked the tumultuous social life of the performer including his chequered music career. In a way the main theme appeared to be a cathartic and psychological evocation of the artiste’s inner feeling and a deep search for connection with a world that has often remained strange and aloof for him. There is always a way in which soulful music evokes a sense of yearning for things beyond the physical. Sometimes the music is rendered in such a manner that captures the essence of spiritualism for troubled souls

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Descartes and his Meditations on the First Philosophy Essay

Descartes and his Meditations on the First Philosophy - Essay Example He proves that nature is our teacher because it tells us what is right and wrong. Our intellect, understanding, and free will help us act upon what we have learned through nature and obtained through our senses. We then make judgments in life even though we don't have complete knowledge of anything and everything is doubtful and believe that God will pass the best judgment because God is all-knowing. Â  Descartes created his Meditations to unlearn everything and build stronger foundations for all the ideas that exist within humans. He said that often human beings make errors of judgment habitually and believe things without reason. He wanted to prove to the world that God exists not through religion or science but through a rationalized argument. In his meditations, Descartes discusses how we know that we exist as human beings, how the senses work, how we gain knowledge, make judgments and that God exists and is the best judge of all. Â  "Nevertheless, the belief that there is a God who is all-powerful, and who created me, such as I am, has, for a long time, obtained steady possession of my mind. How, then, do I know that he has not arranged that there should be neither earth, nor sky, nor any extended thing, nor figure, nor magnitude, nor place, providing at the same time, however, for [the rise in me of the perceptions of all these objects, and] the persuasion that these do not exist otherwise than as I perceive them (Descartes, Meditation 1, section 9) Descartes asks a critical question in the first meditation. He wonders if our mind is in God's control as is everything else in the universe how do we know if the universe really exists. The mind thinks and that is its only purpose. All the information gathered by our five senses is registered with our brain for us to know what we felt, saw, smelt, heard or tasted. We lose one of our senses if we lose that part of our body. For example, if a person loses his eye s he loses his sight and if a person loses his ears he loses his hearing. Everything in the body is connected to the brain, therefore, if one part of the brain is damaged, everything connected to it gets affected. The mind is the sensory treasure box. To think and to act are controlled by the mind. The mind is controlled by God as long as a person believes that there is a God and has created us. Therefore, it is absolutely possible that anything that mind observes and thinks maybe an illusion. We know there is a sky because we can see a sky; we know there is an Earth because we feel it under our feet. We know all of this because all signals we sense are shot up to our brain and processed so we know what we have sensed.

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Prevalence Of Musculoskeletal Disorder Health And Social Care Essay

Prevalence Of Musculoskeletal Disorder Health And Social Care Essay Musculoskeletal disorders, also called repetitive motion disorder, are injuries of the muscles, tendons, ligaments, joints, cartilage, nerves, and spinal discs. It could lead to occupation injury because of repetitive movement, forceful exertion, poor posture, and other factors. Back pain is one of musculoskeletal disorders most commonly experienced radiographers or x-ray technicians. This is attributed to poor posture and wrong movements that radiographers used to do during their long working hours (1) One common wrong movement practiced by radiographers is carrying cassettes on the hip, which puts load on one side of body and imparts torsional strain on the spinal muscles. Other wrong movements include; lifting patient by one radiographer with arms and legs in straight position, and bending from their waist with straight legs to retrieve an object from the floor (1-3). To avoid back pain among the radiographers, there must be safety rules and principles to follow during working hours. Literature Review: Several studies aimed to investigate the relationship between musculoskeletal disorders and occupational therapy among radiographers. All showed similar result indicating that the most common pain among radiographers was low back pain (4-9). Back pain among radiographers: An initial study of back pain was done by D. Wright and P. Witt (1993) to indicate any incidence of back pain, obtain demographic data, and discover preferences for performing radiography tasks. Randomly, 226 radiographers were chosen but only 18 male and 92 female radiographers accept to actively participate. Most of them worked in general diagnostic areas and were divided into two group. The first group consisted of participants with back pain from both genders. The male mean age was 40.08, mean height 68.3 inches, average of weight 181 pounds, and average of back pain intensity 2.4 on 10 point scales. The female mean age36.79, mean height 64.5 inches, average of weight 146 pounds and average of back pain intensity 3.5 on 10 point scales. Both males and females with back pain reported 6.85 of work related stress. The second group was without back pain. The male mean age was 43, mean height 69.8 inches, and average of weight 171 pounds. The female mean age37.56, mean height 64.8 inc hes, and average of weight 142 pounds. Their mean age was 43 for males and 37.56 for females. Instrument of the study was through the use of a survey with eight written pages and demographic information related to age, height, weight, area of specialization, work related stress, intensity and anatomical distribution of back pain. It was distributed to the volunteer to collect descriptive frequency data on back pain and their methods to perform 10 tasks. Some of these tasks were: moving over head tube, carrying multiple cassettes and transferring horizontal patient. It was found that there was no significant age, height, weight related links for back pain. It was also found that the methods to perform the tasks was not related to back pain. The study suggested that repeated poor posture, back strain, and faulty body mechanics may lead to back pain. However due to small sample size and self selected survey the study had limitations (4). Risk factors and musculoskeletal complaints in X-ray technologists: Another study was done by E. Bos, et al (2007) to determine prevalence rates of musculoskeletal complaints of neck, shoulder and low back and perceived exposure to risk factors. Non-specialized nurses, Intensive Care Unit (ICU) nurses, operation room nurses, and x-ray technologists (n= 3169), worked in 8 different hospitals, were included in the study. A Dutch Musculoskeletal Questionnaire, which is a standardized questionnaire, partly derived from the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire, was given to the subjects to collect personal information and demographic information such as height, weight, function, having managerial task, working hours, and work in past and lifestyle. Moreover, musculoskeletal complaints, musculoskeletal workload, health, task, and psychosocial working conditions items were included. The final results clearly showed that x-ray technologists and nurses reported low back complaints (5). Musculoskeletal complaints among x-ray technologists: A cross-sectional study was done by A. Lorusso, S. Bruno, and N. Là ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢abbate (2007) included two hundred and fourteen x-ray technologists working in 13 different hospital in Italy. The volunteers were given a self administered questionnaire to collect information on individual characteristics and compliance of musculoskeletal pain. They were asked if they had lifted patients, transferred lead apron wearing, and handled cassettes. A Standardized Nordic Questionnaire was used in order to evaluate musculoskeletal complaints in neck, shoulder, low back, hand/wrist, and legs during the past 12 months. The mean age was 48.5 years for men and 42.8 years for women. Fifty six of them were smokers, and 119 had a regular exercise program. The result reported low back pain as the most commonly symptom followed by shoulder and neck pain (6). Musculoskeletal complaints among x-ray technology students: Lorusso, L, et al (2010) aimed in their study to estimate the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints among a group of x-ray technology students. The subjects consisted of 60 male students and 49 female students (n=109). Their mean age was 21.1 years and of their body mass index (BMI) was twenty three. The students were given a questionnaire that had been used in a musculoskeletal survey among X-ray technologists. It collected information on individual characteristics such as gender, age, height/weight, smoking status, and leisure time physical activities. Information about physical exposure during training and complaint about the presence of musculoskeletal pain were also collected. The participants were also asked if they had lifted patients, transferred or positioned portable equipment handling, lead apron wearing and cassettes. A Standardized Nordic Questionnaire was used to evaluate musculoskeletal complaints in specific body regions such as neck, shoulder, low back, hand and wrist and legs. The result showed that low back pain (LBP) was the most reported symptoms followed by neck and shoulder pain (7). Musculoskeletal disorders among radiographers in Kuwait: Sheikha Al-Kindari, el al (2008) investigated musculoskeletal disorder among radiographers in Kuwait. Data were collected by questionnaire from 147 radiographers who were working in different governmental hospitals. The questionnaire included 6 different parts, including demographic data, education and the current job, physical risk factor related with the regular work, psychological risk factor related with the regular work, general health status, and exist of any musculoskeletal problem in body. Musculoskeletal disorder on neck and lower back regions was the highest percentage because of standing for a long time, moving different equipments, lifting, caring, pushing and pulling loads (8). Work-related musculoskeletal disorders among radiographers: Finally, Kao, et al (2009) checked the relationship between musculoskeletal disorder and work related risk factor in radiography department. The subjects were 107 from radiography department. The majority worked at the department less than 5 years and were divided in different sections such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Computed Tomography (CT), X-ray, Ultrasound (US), and other. A questionnaire, which contained questions on work characteristics, work description, posture during long period, and body pain, was completed by the subjects. A modified body map also was used to indicate areas of experienced pain. It was categorized to upper back pain, upper limb pain, lower back pain, and lower limb pain. The participants were asked if their pain was related to their work, and were included to the study if there had answered with partially or fully related. Ninety seven subjects continued in the study while 7 refused and 3 pregnant women were excluded. The result of this study was a high percentage on low back pain and upper limb pain. The association between low back pain and working in CT was also significant because of heavy workload such as heavy lifting, twisting, and bending. The study limitations included small subject size, self reporting for measurement of outcomes limited, and estimations were some of limitations of this study (9). Biomechanical principles According to previous studies (3-4), musculoskeletal complaints among radiographers is caused by wrong movements such as repeated back strain, poor posture, and faulty body mechanics. To avoid the musculoskeletal pain, biomechanical principles must be followed. These principles include: Keeping a load à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“cassettes and tubeà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  close to center of gravity (COG) Carrying the cassette vertically against chest rather than carrying it on the hip to avoid the load on one side of the body and imparts torsional strain on the spinal muscles. Lowering the tube to waist height before moving it horizontally to avoid back strain. Using legs muscles rather than paraspinal muscles Pushing mobile unit rather than pulling it. Transferring horizontal patient with assistance from 2 people with apart feet and straight legs. Bending knee, slightly bending back forward to pick up objects form floor. Avoiding twisting the back while loading paraspinal muscles when moving Bucky tray, moving supplies, moving equipment through doorways, working with wheelchair patients, and placing a cassette behind a bed redden patient. Using both hand to move the Bucky tray. Conclusion Musculoskeletal disorders are injuries of the muscles, tendons, ligaments, joints, cartilage, nerves, and spinal discs. Back pain is the most common musculoskeletal disorder among radiographers due to poor posture and wrong movements such as carrying cassettes on hip, lifting patient by one radiographer, and bending from their waist to retrieve an object from the floor. Several studies were done aimed to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints among the x-ray technologists. The results confirmed that 72% and 77% prevalence of low back pain respectively among male and female radiographers, respectively (10-11). Biomechanical principles such as keeping a load close to center of gravity, using legs muscles, avoiding twisting back, and using both hand to move the Bucky tray, are recommended in order to avoid musculoskeletal pain in radiographers.

Friday, January 17, 2020

Development of Communities

Communities, like tribes, were traditionally considered to be the second stage of human grouping, right after families. They however now mean different things to different people, making the definition of community too broad and incapable of clear description. The notion of community, as per the Oxford English Dictionary, is defined to be â€Å"the people of a country (or district) as a whole; the general body to which all alike belong. † This definition is however largely inadequate, considering the many contexts in which the word is used today.At one level communities stand for clusters of persons, larger than families, who are related by specific common features like the language they speak, the gods they worship, the ethnicity they belong to, the traditions they practice and the place they stay in. Again whilst communities represent human groupings that are more populous than families, many extended families like the tribes that people the islands of the Indian Ocean can e asily qualify to be treated as communities.Communities are further known to have the same social standards, plainly discernible structures and come from specific locations. Communities are powerful entities and have on many occasions achieved remarkable goals in self determination and the pursuit of autonomy, ergo the many struggles for independence in Asia and Africa in recent decades. The sustained struggle of the Tamil community in Sri Lanka in the face of the most horrendous deprivation captures the essential resilience of community feeling and the extent to which it binds community members.Much of this internal strength comes from the sense of solidarity, identification and support that exists within these structures, the instilling of social values, and the development of attitudes and common strengths. The growth of terrorism is clearly linked to the influence of community attitudes and values; the London bombers, for example, owe their religious fanaticism to community feeli ngs, which superseded the influence of factors like education and financial and social well being and led them to take plainly irrational decisions.Whilst the notion of community has attracted attention and debate from the time of Aristotle, the social, economic, and political developments that have occurred on the global platform since the 1980s have put the relevance of community into sharper focus. Globalization, a phenomenon that took off in the 1980s after the collapse of the Soviet Union and entailed the breakdown of physical, economic, and trade barriers between peoples of different regions has truly made the world a much smaller place.Apart from the much greater interconnectedness that has happened in areas of business, trade, economics, education, travel and other areas of human activity, globalization has also led to substantial migrations of peoples from their native lands, Bangladeshis into India, East Europeans into the UK, people from South and Southeast Asia into the US and UK, and an ever increasing stream of Mexicans into the US.Spurred on by the desire for better living standards, people from economically backward and politically unstable countries are moving into neighboring or distant areas, putting up base, and settling down, changing local demographic structures, interacting with the original inhabitants, bringing their culture and tradition with them, influencing and being influenced by their adopted lands.By no means is this phenomenon restricted to the affluent countries, (viz.  global magnets like the USA and the UK), which have traditionally attracted the deprived with their economic affluence and individual freedoms. Bangladeshis, Tibetans and Nepalese, for instance, have crossed their porous borders with neighboring India and spread out all over the country, offering cheap labor at construction sites, restaurants, and to security companies, changing local equations, provoking sympathy as well as hostility and resentment.The Unite d States, which has for long been known to be a multicultural and welcoming haven for the poor and needy of the world is now home to millions of people from the Latin speaking countries of South America, Asia and the Pacific Rim, who have settled down in large numbers and significantly changed what was essentially a society dominated by whites, with peripheral roles played by African Americans. The inflow of these outsiders has led to the establishment of communities, where people with commonalities cluster together, sustaining and supporting each other, and interacting in various ways with the larger society around them.This study examines the issue of survival of such communities in the era of globalization, using readings from two distinguished and well known books, â€Å"Becoming neighbors in a Mexican American Community† (2004) by Gilda L. Ochoa and â€Å"The Politics of Diversity: Immigration, Resistance and Change in Monterey Park, California† (1997) by John Hor ton. Commentary and Analysis Gilda Ochoa, a professor of sociology at the California State University at Los Angeles picks up an intriguing subject, the relationships and interaction between Mexican Americans, for detailed investigation and analysis.Referring to a variety of sources like direct interviews, observations from participating in group discussion sessions, minutes of board meetings of local schools, and other relevant papers, Ochoa presents a vivid and disturbing picture of the relationships that are emerging between established Mexican Americans and the new immigrants from Mexico, who are pouring in, legally and illegally, from across the southern border of the United States in hundreds of thousands every year.Whilst the two communities of Mexican origin do have common historical, cultural, ethnic and religious traditions, their relationships and interaction are characterized by a number of contradictions and insecurities that include sympathy, helpfulness, and cooperati veness, as well as resentment, fear, and mistrust.Apart from emphasizing the role played by women in the construction of communities, Ochoa deals with issues pertaining to the use of Spanish at home and English in the outside world, the formation of identity and the dynamics of group working during the interactions of the two communities in commonly frequented public places in the small and predominantly working class city of La Puente, 20 miles southeast of downtown Los Angeles in Los Angeles County.John Horton’s book focuses on the small (just 60,000 inhabitants) town of Monterey Park; which in recent years has generated substantial media and researcher interest. At one time Monterey Park was a suburb located some distance east from downtown Los Angeles. Immigration from China, Hong Kong and other Pacific Rim countries that began in the early 1970s and gained momentum thereafter led to the city becoming the first in the United States with a majority of Asian inhabitants.Hor ton’s book is actually one of a duo on the subject, the other being authored by Timothy Fong. The evolution of Monterey Park into an Asian majority city in the United States is important for the social and economic ramifications that arise out of the coming together of people of different races, different ethnic backgrounds and different classes in a nation that is becoming increasingly diverse in terms of cultures, languages, religions and income groups.Horton refuses to see Monterey Park as another Chinatown and views it in terms of a bustling and diverse location that has witnessed the political changes that arose from the interaction of immigrants and earlier residents of Asian, Latino and Anglo American lineage; he uniquely showcases the political battles that started off on the basis of ethnicity and race, which were thereafter gradually abandoned in favor of accord and harmony.The steady evolution of a multicultural, multiracial, and multiethnic society in the United S tates has led to significant demographic shifts and political changes. With the Latina/o population in Los Angeles expected to outstrip the white population by 2 million by 2010, the city is already known as the Chicano capital of the US. Such events have led to the development of complex relationships between the original inhabitants and newcomers and to the emergence of feelings of conflict as well as solidarity between different population segments.Whilst the entry of large numbers of migrants is bound to lead to the development of complex local relationships, the impact of globalization on the modern day economy and the consequent migration of industries and jobs to low wage areas in South America and from other parts of the world have also led to escalation in hostility, resentment and the tendency to lay the blame for difficulties arising out of such events on the influx of immigrants.Ochoa uses a number of research techniques to investigate the evolution of the Mexican immigr ant community in La Puente in the face of white resentment and hostility, the many obstacles and difficulties that characterized their lives in the city and the strange and complex relationships that developed between the incoming Mexican immigrants and the established Mexican Americans who had arrived earlier, put down their roots, brought up their children, and built their homes in the face of white resistance.Her investigations lead to the development of a piquant tale, warm and heartbreaking, and documents events that often go completely unnoticed by members of the majority and older community, for whom the newcomers often represent nothing more than unwelcome intrusions who clutter residential areas, litter streets, strain existing infrastructure, and take away jobs.Ochoa recounts, through a number of personal interviews, the travails of the Mexican community in the face of a dominant white population that felt strongly enough about immigration to enact laws seeking to deny und ocumented Mexicans â€Å"access to public services, such as excluding children from the public school system, another that denied affirmative action in schools and workplaces, and a third that stemmed from the larger English-only movement and aimed to eliminate bilingual education† (Ochoa, 2004, 3).Ochoa’s work is unique in the sense that most studies on the Mexican community until now have been quantitative in nature, have focused on demographic and work related issues and have not, like her study, taken cognizance of the impact of the environment and local interaction on the evolution of the Mexican community. Working purely within the confines of La Puente, Ochoa addresses issues that affect the evolution of the Mexican American community and the complex attitudes and behaviors that characterize the relations between Mexican Americans and Mexican immigrant newcomers.Her investigation also throws up the impact of the dominant culture on immigrant cultures and the pro bability of new cultures and new communities becoming assimilated in the culture of the majority community. With most assimilative and integrative methods practiced through local schools, Ochoa’s work focuses strongly on the working of schools and school boards, on the attitudes and impressions of local parents and how control of schooling provides the dominant community with strong weapons to suppress the expression of newer communities, take away from them the language of their forefathers and break their links with their ancestors.Apart from the pernicious effect of schooling on the latent aspirations of incoming communities, Ochoa’s investigation of interaction between Mexican Americans and Mexican immigrants brings out the areas of conflict as well as solidarity and the extent to which the constant flow of immigrants can affect the assimilation process of older and established inhabitants from the same ethnic and geographical background. Immigrant communities from different cultures have to often face resistance to their traditions, language, and customs in their adopted homes from members of the home community.A phenomenon that has repeatedly expressed itself in the past in various settings, it has led to the immigrant community assimilating itself with the culture of the local community, adopting their way of life, language, customs and traditions. The United States has itself played host to impoverished immigrants from Ireland and other countries of Europe like Poland and Germany, who have over decades learnt English, Anglo traditions and customs, conformed to local expectations and become Americans.Assimilation of foreigners is not restricted to the United States and expresses itself in all societies that play host to immigrants. The United Kingdom for example is redrawing immigration procedures that now require all immigrants to take tests on their knowledge of England, English, and English society. Much of this assimilation is carried out at the level of local schools, where school policies are predominantly weighed in favor of maintaining the local language and local culture to the exclusion of alien languages and cultural influences.Ochoa makes the point that with schools being reproductions of the larger surrounding society, their structure, policies, procedures, and regulations, in La Puente, work towards strengthening the established values, attitudes, ideologies and inherent discriminatory attitudes of the American way of life; their socialization process emphasizes the integration of children of immigrants and other colored people by teaching and inculcating values, norms, attitudes and expectations of the dominant class.The emphasis on English to the exclusion of all other languages, including Spanish, is one of the most important tools for the gradual elimination of Mexican identity and the assimilation of children of different communities into the Anglo way of life that characterizes American society. L a Puente’s investigations also lead to the inescapable conclusion of immigrant communities having to do with poorer school quality and the routing of their children to inferior career paths, conditions that tend to perpetuate existing hierarchical and power structures.Such discomfort, which is supposedly normal in the early years of immigrant arrival in terms of the assimilationist paradigm, (Ochoa, 2004, 21) is expected to gradually lead to a betterment of conditions; the Mexicans are expected to follow in the footsteps of the Irish, Jewish, and Italian communities who came before them and gradually shed their community attributes and adopted the American way of life, i. e. entered into the activities and general life of the dominant community.The assimilationist paradigm further postulates that with immigrant communities expected to become less distinguishable from the dominant community with the passage of generations, such assimilation leads to greater acceptance and less er hostility and a gradual easing of difficult living conditions. Apart from the tactics of assimilation practiced in schools, Ochoa also documents the complex and dichotomous relationships that exist between Mexican Americans and immigrant Mexicans, with the reactions of Mexican Americans moving from feelings of distaste, shame and rejection to cooperation, assistance and solidarity.With the responses of Mexican Americans being shaped by (a) their feelings about California once being part of Mexico and now occupied by Americans, (b) their experiences in La Puente, their adopted homeland, their struggles and the hostility they faced in their efforts to settle down in La Puente (c) their affinity towards their people from Mexico, and (d) their feelings of embarrassment arising out of the backwardness of the new entrants, their reactions are contradictory and, going by the interviews with Mexican immigrants, veer from goodwill and cooperation to rejection and hostility.Much of the neg ative attitudes can presumably be put down to insecurity that could stem from feeling that their acceptance in American society could be adversely affected by the buildup of negative perceptions in the face of continuing influx. Ochoa also documents the struggles the Mexican community has faced and is facing in preserving their language and culture from established institutional and social culture and their need for preservation of their cultural and social identity.Horton’s book focuses on the emergence of diversity in politics in Monterey Park from one and a half decades (mid 1980s to late 1990s) of interaction between immigrants and native residents. Employing techniques like ethnography, the use of exit polls and interviews, Horton is able to represent the process of change, which encompasses the giving way of established networks of loyalty, the increasing importance of women, minorities and newcomers, and the makeover of identities.Horton examines the municipal election s of 1988, 1990 and 1992 to show that voters made their election choices in the first 2 elections mostly on the basis of ethnicity. By 1992 feelings of ethnic solidarity appeared to have diluted significantly and voting patterns did not appear to move along ethnic lines.Horton furthermore also investigates areas other than those concerning politics like civic organizations and social events to assess the results of interaction between the city’s multi-ethnic residents, and seeks to show that whilst ethnicity was an important political force, it was in a state of fluidity and was mined and modified for political advantage.Elaborating on the divisive and essentially racist approach of the Slow-Growth and the Official-English movements, (Horton, 1997, 121) Horton also points out the importance of class stating that integration at Monterey Park was furthered because both native inhabitants and immigrants belonged to the middle class. The middle class resources of the newcomers an d the middle class status of the established inhabitants helped in reducing differences between the two groups. This point is extremely valid; it reinforces the force of class as a divisive factor in society and its power to overcome differences in culture, traditions and ethnicity.Based upon a wide range of data that comprised of reviews of newspapers, exit polls, interviews and eyewitness accounts, Horton compares the issues of ethnicity, immigration and race in Monterey Park with larger regional, national, and global contexts. Opposing the view that that cultural diversity will lead to disunity among American people, Horton makes the point that diversity does not inescapably lead to lasting competition and conflict (Horton, 1997, 182) and that moreover the politics of diversity based on alliances between different ethnic groups can bring about unity and harmony.His effort is important for the analysis that interethnic politics lead to the redefinition of ethnic identities. A comm unity is far more than a collection of individual humans with some common bonds or purposes, such groups being more appropriately described as associations. Communities develop mores and are characterized by a sense of self identity that comes about from a common and shared past as well as a collective vision of the future, an identification with the concept of â€Å"us† and â€Å"them†, and finally of collective thought and attitudes, (features of community characteristics that are brought out very clearly both by Ochoa and Horton).Again communities need individuals to be integrated by principles, be active, and participate strongly in the pursuit of its interests. Communities, experts say, are united by an identifying principle, which represents the value, the ideal, and the good that the community revolves around for its sustained survival, and shapes the processes for assessing such principle.With the establishment of the values and principles and the organization of the community requiring its members to participate in such processes, interaction between community members is dependent upon communication, an essential feature of community life that is destroyed through negation of the use of ethnic languages by assimilative processes. Communities require communicating to grow and consolidate. With humans living in communities by virtue of the things they share and possess, ideal communities are restricted in size and distinguished by strong communication between its members.Globalization, migration, and assimilation of traits of other cultures obviously work against the strengthening of communication bonds between community members and affect its furtherance. The subject of globalization and its repercussions have come to the vanguard of socio-political debate and discussion, there being a growing concern that globalization, through its various manifestations, is wiping out communities and cultures and creating an ugly similarity all over the world.Events like the protests against the WTO in Seattle during 1999, the objection to the entry of McDonald’s in various parts of the world and other insurrections, suggest that the concept of a unified world is not just difficult but also unwanted by many peoples. It however needs to be realized that the personal and cultural impact that globalization is having all over the world is as important as its economic impact. The creation of a global society actually needs diversity in its constituents, the diversity in a society adding to its novelty and, hopefully, to its ability to be flexible.The integrating principle of a global society should not just reject sameness but should try to represent the views of all those involved in its creation and maintenance There is an increasing feeling that globalization can lead to the destruction of a myriad ethnic cultures in favor of one common culture, which most people feel will be predominantly Euro-American, considering the soft and hard powers of the western nations and their domination of global media.In both La Puente and Monterey Park, the cultures of ethnic communities have been subjected to a fierce assault by the dominant culture, much of which is played out in schools and by the imposition of the English language. The all pervasive effect of American advertising and television programs is also seen as a strong culturally invasive force, not just with immigrant communities in the US but all over the world; the concern about loss of cultural identity and local uniqueness is substantial and is caused by the perception of the imposition of cultural hegemony through all possible means.With globalization impacting the world at all levels, society, community, and individual, it is not difficult to foresee that the assimilation of individual cultures and unique community traits into the folds of the dominant community can have a negative impact upon community life. It however remains a fact that the homogen ization of the world, as also of different communities in the United States, is happening at a fast clip, a phenomenon that is adversely affecting the independence, growth and sustenance of a myriad communities. A number of reasons are behind this decline in community life.With globalization involving travel and migration of labor forces in large volumes from areas of deprivation and excess labor availability to those deficient in workforce and willing to pay for the same, it is become progressively difficult for communities to retain their distinguishing characteristics in the new areas that some of their members decide to make their homes in. Whilst increases in communication technology and cheaper air travel are making communication cheap and easy between people in different areas, the absence of direct face to face communication that existed in the past is bound to affect the integrity of community life.Limited communication will not allow for the development of relationships to levels that are needed for the continuance of communities. Apart from the deterioration in 121 relationships, community spirits are also hurt by cultures of consumption, market cultures and the cultures of dominant communities, all of which lead community members, especially those who are young to conform to what they feel to be the most popular, acceptable and esteemed culture. Market cultures affect community life adversely, leading to the dominance of commodification and the decline of neighborhoods, communities and common links of history and tradition.The adoption of the cultural mores and ways of life of the dominant community by immigrant communities is, in many cases, as highlighted by Ochoa, due to need for increasing the self esteem and self worth of members of immigrant communities. Such feelings in the minds of new immigrants are moreover reinforced by seeing people of the same community, who had come earlier, having already adopted the culture of sameness, and conseque ntly lead to greater assimilation with dominant communities and submersion of individual community traits.Homogenization of individuals into persons with similar behavioral and cultural norms arises from (a) environmental forces that do not appreciate and do not tolerate any deviation from accepted norms and (b) the erroneous notion that social or national unity requires all individuals to follow the same culture; much like the concept of organizational culture in the private sector. A nation or a society is however significantly different from a private sector corporation and such notions lead to the creation of utmost confusion over concepts of homogeneity and unity.Strong unity, most policymakers and intellectuals assert, comes from the affirmation of diversity in the context of similar objectives. Homogeneity in fact leads to dogma, intolerance, prejudice, and divisiveness and works against the concept of unity and effective progress towards common goals. Diversity has time and again been shown to be associated with the successful working and goal attainment of most groups of people.Communities and larger societies thrive on diversity and the underlying objective for the achievement and establishment of a beneficial structure, concepts and ideas that cannot progress in the absence of tolerance for other ideas and perspectives. The necessity of changing with the times is critical for all communities and larger societies. Globalization is also steadily eliminating the sense of responsibility necessary for the growth, purpose and consolidation of community life, with most community affairs being decided by state or national governmental bodies, and even by large corporate organizations.All this as well as the process of assimilation is leading to the steady deterioration of community life and the construction of associations that are characterized by sameness to the exclusion of oneness in the reinforcing presence of diversity. Lack of diversity, tolerance, a nd communication, leads to the stifling of communities. In actual fact, the concept of a truly global society allows communities to grow and flourish; it takes strength and sustenance from their various inputs and features, even as it strives for the achievement of common and not selective good.Such a society will work optimally only after the striking of a proper balance between the needs of globalization and the dominant and minority communities in areas of political, social and economic activity. Whilst globalization does not appear to be a reversible phenomenon, actions need to be taken to ensure that it is not allowed to destroy the notion of community. Both the studies, by Ochoa and Horton, reveal that whilst immigrant communities come under enormous pressure in early years, such strains disappear with the progress of assimilation.Although most community members show mixed approaches to the process of assimilation, resenting the taking away of the characteristic features of th eir life and at the same time wishing to be held in esteem by members of the dominant host community, the preservation of communities depends greatly upon the tolerance and openness of establishment members and the extent to which they are ready to respect the uniqueness of newcomers in their midst.Assimilation can actually instead of leading to unity result in a false sense of sameness, and such societies, which press for the establishment of sameness rather than diversity, can lead to the suppression of growth and sustenance of communities. Conclusion The continuance of communities in a fast globalizing world, as is evidenced from the foregoing discussion, depends to a large extent upon the tolerance and open-mindedness of dominant communities.Whilst most communities are formed over the ages and are by nature extremely resilient, excessive fragmentation, migration and exposure to more politically and economically powerful cultures that are furthermore negatively disposed towards a lien communities can put such communities under immense strain and lead to irreversible changes.Horton makes the point that modern day society, whilst containing elements of dogma and intolerance, are by nature receptive to the concept of multi ethnic structures; they are open to being shaped by and responding to external influences, and to the creation of freer and more vibrant social structures. The concept of a globalized world allows communities to retain their distinguishing and reinforcing features, even while it strives for the betterment of the common good.The successful progression of such social structures work towards the advantage and benefit of the many communities that sustain its diversity and multifaceted nature and it becomes the responsibility of all individuals to ensure that diversity is not sacrificed at the altar of sameness. Communities are critical to the successful progression of human society; they facilitate the establishment and sustenance of bonds betwee n humans at elemental levels, lead to joint and cooperative action for the betterment of society and to the continuation of different identities and cultures that have grown over centuries.Such features of diverse and multiethnic societies need to be valued and not extinguished by narrow and insecure parochialism and the desire to create a globally similar society. Unthinking efforts to assimilate separate cultures and extinguish their unique characteristics in favor of the establishment of uniformity can lead to nothing but the detriment of globalization efforts and society needs to be ever vigilant against such regressive tendencies.Recognizing the impact of globalization on communities and making of concerted efforts to preserve them is an imperative for the establishment of a truly globalized society and should be a priority of leading world societies. Globalization need not lead to the decline of community. Shifting of short sighted perspectives will help in the preservation, s ustenance and growth of unique communities and to the diversity and strength of a truly globalized society. References Ochoa, G.L, (2004), Becoming Neighbors in a Mexican American Community: Power, Conflict, and Solidarity, University of Texas Press Horton, J, (1997), The Politics of Diversity: Immigration, Resistance, and Change in Monterey Park, California, Temple University Press

Thursday, January 9, 2020

Literary Essay on A Story of an Hour - 753 Words

â€Å"The Story of An Hour† focuses on sixty minutes in the life of a young nineteenth-century woman, Mrs. Mallard. Upon learning of her husband’s death, Mrs. Mallard experiences an epiphany about her future without a husband. Her life, due to heart problems, suddenly ends after she unexpectedly finds out her husband is actually alive. Mrs. Mallard’s actions cause the reader to cogitate a hidden meaning weaved into Kate‘s short story. Chopin had an idea that women felt confined in their marriages, and the idea is brought out through the protagonist’s initial reaction, excessive joy, and new perspective of the world following the upsetting news. The first example of the theme arises when the protagonist â€Å"wept at once, with sudden, wild†¦show more content†¦Mallard’s unexpected bout of joy also supports the theme; if she was not feeling confined, her feelings of grief would not have been replaced by excessive joy. Time moves alon g, and she continues to whisper â€Å"free! Body and soul free!† (Chopin 2). It is further understood that the character was released from a constricted marriage because the words willingly slip roll off her tongue. The last example occurs during and after Mrs. Mallard watches the â€Å"tops of trees that were all aquiver with the new spring life† (Chopin 1). This shows that the character’s image of the world is already changed since she was informed of her husband’s death. In the twelfth paragraph, Chopin uses her character’s new perspective of the world to exemplify the confinement women felt. The character understood she had â€Å"no one to live for during those coming years; she would live for herself† (Chopin 2). Mrs. Mallard’s thoughts revolve around her limitations during marriage. She soon realizes that she would have â€Å"no powerful will bending hers† (Chopin 2). Mrs. Mallard was likely controlled her entire marriage; and now she is released from her husband’s dominance. Before opening the door for her sister, she was thinking about â€Å"all sorts of days that would be her own† (Chopin 2). The character looked forward t o her new life ahead of her because of the new freedom she has gained; she thought about the future that involved her freedom from marriage. Mrs. Mallard eventually says a prayer to herselfShow MoreRelated Literary Analysis: the Story of an Hour Essays645 Words   |  3 PagesWhen first reading Kate Chopins Story of an Hour, one may not typically be surprised at its ending, write it off as one of those creepy back from the dead horror stories and forget about it. There is more to this story than simply horror. The author is making a very strong, however subtle, statement towards humanity and womens rights. Through subtle symbolism, Kate Chopin shows how marriage is more like a confining role of servitude rather than a loving partnership. Mr. Mallard is assumedRead MoreLiterary Analysis- the Story of an Hour Essay1832 Words   |  8 PagesRide of Her Life In â€Å"The Story of an Hour† (1894), Kate Chopin presents a woman in the last hour of her life and the emotional and psychological changes that occur upon hearing of her husbands’ death. Chopin sends the protagonist, Mrs. Mallard, on a roller coaster of emotional up’s and down’s, and self-actualizing psychological hairpin turns, which is all set in motion by the news of her husband’s death. This extreme â€Å"joy ride† comes to an abrupt and ultimately final halt for Mrs. Mallard whenRead MoreEssay on Literary Analysis on Kate Chopin’s The Story of an Hour 657 Words   |  3 PagesChopin’s â€Å"The Story of An Hour† focuses on a woman named Louise Mallard and her reaction to finding out about her husband’s death. The descriptions that the author uses in the story have significance in the plot because they foreshadow the ending. This story mainly follows a woman with heart trouble. Her husband’s name appears at the top of a list of people killed in a railroad accident. The story than explains her reaction upon finding out about his death. At the end of the story, her husband (whoRead MoreSymbolism in The Story of an Hour758 Words   |  4 PagesSymbolism in the â€Å"Story of an Hour† by Kate Chopin For this lesson I read The Story of an Hour by Kate Chopin. Although there are many literary devices used in The Story of an Hour, I have decided to write my essay on the use of symbolism. The literary device symbolism is a technique used to represent ideas and events by using significant or important things that stand out in the story. A few things that stood out most in the story would be the comfortable chair, and Mrs. Mallards heartRead MoreLiterature Comparison735 Words   |  3 Pagesforms of literature. They are novel, drama, poetry, biography, non-fictional prose, essay, epic and short story. 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TheRead MoreEssay about Comp and Lit Comparison of Blue+Yellow/Story of an Hour1296 Words   |  6 PagesComp amp; lit II Essay 1 In the short story â€Å"the Story of an Hour† by Kate Chopin and the short story â€Å"blue + yellow† by Chris Killen compare in many ways. These two stories use the same literary device strongly such as imagery. Imagery is a literary device in which the author uses words and phrases to paint a picture in the readers head throughout the story. These two short stories are written with very descriptive language to help paint a picture of the occurrences in the story and describe a sceneRead More Shirley Jacksons The Lottery 946 Words   |  4 Pagesout of the American literary canon.† (http://shirleyjackson.org/Reviews.html) Jackson wrote many short stories and even some books. They are more on the dark, witchlike side, however. Kelleher explains that Jackson stated in some interviews that she practiced magic. No one really knows if she was serious while practicing witchcraft or not, but it ended up helping her write her stories http://www.literarytraveler.com/li terary_articles/shirley_jackson_bennington.aspx). A major story that throws peopleRead MoreReflection Paper : A Trip906 Words   |  4 Pagesfirst draft, I had two stories, the first being about a change of fate (Wheel of Fortune) and the second being about a past excursion (A Trip). However, after being workshopped, I realized that I had to focus on one of the stories. As such, I took into consideration what my peers thought that day and decided to expand upon my second story, originally titled â€Å"A Trip†. One of the major issues I faced when writing my stories was having a clear focus. Additionally, since each story was relatively shortRead MoreTechnology and Family Issues in The Veldt by Ray Bradbury Essay1493 Words   |  6 Pagesâ€Å"When I punished him for a month ago by locking the nursery for even a few hours—the tantrum he threw!† (Bradbury). This line of the story explains the wanting of the family’s children back against technology. It also shows that the technology is winning because of the desire to keep playing in the nursery. â€Å"The Veldt† is a short story written by Ray Bradbury who was born on August 22, 1920 and passed away on June 5, 2012. He was very interested in the science fiction genre and Edgar Allan Poe (Kattelman)